永利皇宫英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,相信人们应当以平凡实际的方式去遵循虔诚的生活与穿着

第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

1649 – 1660

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

PURITAN INFLUENCE

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

After King Charles I was executed in 1649, England became a republic
called the Commonwealth, with Oliver Cromwell at its head.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

Cromwell, a Protestant and a Puritan, believed that people should lead
pious lives and dress in a plain and practical way.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

永利皇宫,His opponents, the Royalists, supported a return to the monarchy and
wore elaborate clothing inspired by French fashion.

Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
this area.

VOICE ONE:

永利皇宫 1

VOICE ONE:

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

A painting by Jacobus Vrel

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.

英国是第一个跟西班牙争夺新大陆的欧洲国家。伊丽莎白女王从十六世纪七十年代就开始支持对新大陆的探险,不过,由于英国的力量比较薄弱,所以这种争夺最初并不是正面公开的。

Cromwell’s Puritans based their dress on Dutch traditions, since the
Dutch United Provinces (now the Netherlands) was a strongly Protestant
country as well as a wealthy, influential one.

清教徒是英国在北美大陆东北地区–现在的美国马萨诸塞州–定居人数最多的群体之一。清教徒1630年开始陆续抵达。他们在英国成立了马萨诸塞湾公司。英国国王把从查尔斯河到梅里马克河之间的土地赐给了他们。

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
England.

Many style features associated with his period — such as linen collars
covering the shoulders and the widespread popularity of black — are
Dutch in origin.

The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.

英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,但是没能建立长期定居点,他本人也在返回英国的途中去世。

Dark clothes with little or no decoration were favored.

清教徒也是新教信徒,但是他们不认同圣公会,希望对圣公会厉行改革,因此决定离开英国。他们在新大陆定居下来后,可以按照自己的愿望生活,并逐渐发展为规模最大的宗教团体。到了1690年的时候,马萨诸塞州已经有了五万人。

Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

English Puritans, a branch of Protestants, established a colony in
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in what is now the US, in 1620 that would
influence all aspects of American culture, including fashion.

Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.

吉尔伯特的兄弟雷利爵士继续努力,派遣多艘船只到北美东海岸探险,他把登陆的地方命名为Virginia维吉尼亚,纪念英国终身未婚的伊丽莎白女王。

永利皇宫 2

清教徒认为,他们的宗教是唯一纯正的宗教,所有人都应该成为信徒。他们同时主张,教会领袖应该担任地方官员,殖民地的所有人都应该出钱支持教会。他们觉得,政府官员的职责之一就是要告诉民众应该信仰什么。

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

Prince Ottavio Piccolomini

Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
Roger Williams.

1585年,大约100名男子在今天美国北卡罗来纳州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。这些人一年后返回英国,另外一群人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,这次来的人里多了妇女和儿童。然而,雷利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年救援物资终于抵达的时候,一个定居者都找不到了。

MILITARY DRESS

不过,也有人不认同这些成为殖民地领袖的清教徒的意见,罗杰·威廉姆斯牧师就是其中之一。

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

The English Civil War, from 1642 to 1651, came with a new style military
dress.

VOICE TWO:

历史学家至今不能确定到底发生了什么事情。有研究显示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了当地的印第安人部落。

Parliamentarian Colonel Hutchinson appeared in the English House of
Commons in “a habit which was pretty rich but grave” (a dark doublet
decorated with gold and silver points), but ordinary soldiers wore
plainer clothies.

Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.

VOICE TWO:

Buff-colored leather coats were worn by Cromwell’s New Model Army and by
those involved in conflicts in Europe.

跟所有清教徒一样,罗杰·威廉姆斯也认为其他欧洲宗教都是错误的,印第安土著居民的信仰也是错误的,但是他不同意强迫他人接受自己的看法,认为以基督教的名义去惩罚或杀人是罪孽,认为只有教会成员才有义务出钱支持教会。

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

永利皇宫 3

Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,主要是因为英国1588年遭到了西班牙海军的攻击。西班牙的菲利普国王决定入侵英国,但是英国舰只的抵抗,外加强烈风暴的影响,使西班牙的进攻没有得逞。西班牙从此再也无法阻挡英国的海上探险了。

Oliver Cromwell

罗杰·威廉姆斯通过演说和发表文章来宣扬自己的理念。他著书指出,因为信仰不同而惩罚别人是错误的。他还提出,欧洲定居者是在盗取印第安人的土地,英国国王没有权力把属于印第安人的土地划拨给臣民,让他们在那里定居。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

公元1649年 – 1660年

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.

但是英国发现,要供养如此遥远的殖民地,花销实在太大。因此,伊丽莎白女王停止了向新大陆的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英国才开始认真地在美洲大陆上建立殖民地。

教徒影响

在马萨诸塞湾殖民地清教徒领袖的逼迫下,罗杰·威廉姆斯1636年离开马萨诸塞南下。他从当地印第安人手中买下一片土地,建立了一个叫普罗维登斯的新城市。英国议会授权他以普罗维登斯为首府,创办一个新殖民地–罗德岛,这个殖民地接纳各种宗教信仰的人,包括天主教、贵格会教徒、犹太人,甚至是无神论者。

VOICE ONE:

1649年查尔斯一世被处决之后,英国成为联邦共和国,奥利弗克伦威尔是它的元首。

Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing
ideas.

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

克伦威尔,一位新教徒也是清教徒,相信人们应当以平凡实际的方式去遵循虔诚的生活与穿着。

罗杰·威廉姆斯还相信政教分离,这种新观念日后逐渐发展成了美国最重要的治国理念之一。

1606年,英国的新国王詹姆斯一世批准两家公司在维吉尼亚建立殖民地。

他的对手们,保皇党,支持君主制回归并且穿着以法国时尚为灵感的精致服饰。

VOICE ONE:

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
world.

永利皇宫 4

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