第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

1649 – 1660




This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

After King Charles I was executed in 1649, England became a republic
called the Commonwealth, with Oliver Cromwell at its head.



Cromwell, a Protestant and a Puritan, believed that people should lead
pious lives and dress in a plain and practical way.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

永利皇宫,His opponents, the Royalists, supported a return to the monarchy and
wore elaborate clothing inspired by French fashion.

Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
this area.


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England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

A painting by Jacobus Vrel

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.


Cromwell’s Puritans based their dress on Dutch traditions, since the
Dutch United Provinces (now the Netherlands) was a strongly Protestant
country as well as a wealthy, influential one.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to

Many style features associated with his period — such as linen collars
covering the shoulders and the widespread popularity of black — are
Dutch in origin.

The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.


Dark clothes with little or no decoration were favored.


Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

English Puritans, a branch of Protestants, established a colony in
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in what is now the US, in 1620 that would
influence all aspects of American culture, including fashion.

Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.


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In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

Prince Ottavio Piccolomini

Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
Roger Williams.




History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

The English Civil War, from 1642 to 1651, came with a new style military



Parliamentarian Colonel Hutchinson appeared in the English House of
Commons in “a habit which was pretty rich but grave” (a dark doublet
decorated with gold and silver points), but ordinary soldiers wore
plainer clothies.

Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.


Buff-colored leather coats were worn by Cromwell’s New Model Army and by
those involved in conflicts in Europe.


One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

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Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.


Oliver Cromwell


England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

公元1649年 – 1660年

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.






Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.






The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new

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